The densest population of kiwi ever recorded was in a radiata pine forest at Waitangi—a population tragically decimated by a single dog. Lots of them, and all more common in conifers than in native forest. This concept, known as agroforestry, was introduced as a way to get the maximum return from a given piece of land. Trials which correlated timber yield against tree spacing indicated that stems per hectare gave good yields of clear wood, while still allowing plenty of light for grass growth. At that spacing, there was metres between each tree and the forest was almost parklike.
Agroforestry is an appealing idea. As with most dreams, fleshing out the concept raised problems.
Down on the Farm: Four Useful Things Comes Out from a Pine Tree
While grass under trees looks green and lush, animals tend to despise it. In farming parlance, the grass has got no guts, and animals do poorly on it. There are problems for the trees, too. Because of these difficulties, many foresters have gone back to denser tree plantings where branch size is suppressed and the burden of wind is shared.
A hectare of New Zealand exotic forest absorbs an average of seven tonnes of atmospheric carbon each year and turns it into timber. This is better than any native forest, including the Amazon rain forest. To the extent that the wood from the forest is bound up in long-term usage, this is a clear win for the environment, and if those wood products replace more energy-intensive concrete, metal and plastic, it also represents a huge energy saving.
The wood is particularly well suited to treatment by chemicals, sucking them up like a sponge and binding them tightly to its cellular surfaces. Next, timber destined for indoor use will usually be treated with boron, which protects against fungal and insect attack as long as the wood is dry.
But what of CCA? Not unless we burn it and inhale the smoke, or somehow ingest it.
- The Hidden Hand Cabaret (at Club Espionage);
- Main navigation header!
- Technology of Happiness.
- Tree - Wikipedia!
- Guide médical pratique à lusage des patients souffrant dapnées du sommeil (t. 2): Les traitements du SAS et leur surveillance (French Edition).
In one experiment, a treated wood deck was immersed for twelve months in a chlorinated swimming pool. The nutrients in the conifer litter found their way onto the farm land. Around Rotorua we have pines into their third and even fourth crop, and the soils are fine. The pumice soils of the volcanic plateau are naturally mildly acidic, with a pH of around 5 to 5.
After 60 years of growing pines, they are still at the same level. As with any agricultural crop, constant cropping will reduce the available nutrients, but it is a relatively simple matter to replace them. Most-quoted case: the Irish Potato Famine. Not unlike, you might say, radiata pine.
One tenth of the population perished, and half as many more emigrated. Large-scale planting of radiata did not get going again until the late s. In , the pine needle blight Dothistroma pini arrived in New Zealand. If you look at it that way, radiata leaves everything else in the dust. So far, so good. There would be, at most, 30 years of growth invested in a newly infected stand of trees.
Libby makes the point that one pine tree might look pretty much like another, but at the cellular level there is a healthy level of genetic diversity. Both Tasman Forestry and Carter Holt Harvey either already have or are building large-scale laboratories to produce millions of seedlings with highly selected characteristics. They could, if they wished, plant out large areas in a single, super-performing clone tree.
Fortunately, there is virtually no chance that they will do so. All the major planters of pine in New Zealand belong to the national breeding co-operative. The co-operative shares breeding material, partly funds the work done at FRI, and thus helps to ensure that the genetic base of the plantation forest remains sufficiently broad to sustain healthy variability.
But different groups of parents are used in different situations. It is a race Burdon believes they would win. One is too few. There is also a lot of accumulated knowledge from the numerous species which have been tried out in state forests over the last century. The aim was to narrow the focus to a few which might be better than radiata pine for some uses.
Some more research was done, and they concluded that we knew enough about those species to grow them at a forestry level. You have to plant a very large area over a long time, like ten or twenty years. There are too many disincentives for a market-driven forestry company to even think seriously about it. Douglas fir also has the advantage of being able to be put straight through a mill set up for pine.
Front-running softwoods would have to be three cypresses: Monterey cypress Cupressus macrocarpa , most commonly known as macrocarpa, Mexican cypress C. Anyone who has built with it loves it; it even gives off an exquisite aroma when you cut it with a skilsaw. Like many hardwoods, they are trickier to grow. The bulk of his plantings, though, are still radiata pine. He has no need to preach.
There is already a stampede into forestry investment, with smaller investors responsible for 60 per cent of the new land planted in trees in The problems are all about meeting demand. Land is in short supply.
Green Rush: Will pines really save the planet?
Joint ventures between a farmer with land and an investor with money have been popular, but now the farmers are so keen that they are tending to do it all themselves, even if they have to borrow to pay for it. Thirty years is a long time—forests can burn and blow over, an Asian moth could change the picture overnight, while governments can and almost certainly will reshuffle the tax deck.
International wood supply, also, is perhaps more variable than industry promoters like to think. There are plantations in Brazil producing 70 to cubic metres a year. When he got home, he wanted to use every bit of land. Good climate for it. As the boys grew up, they would help him plant. There was no cultivation, no pruning or thinning. In the meantime, they got on with the business the Ward family has been in for years around the Port Jackson area—dairy farming. Minnesota Forestry Association. Papermaking also uses up vast quantities of trees.
Tutorials/Tree farming – Official Minecraft Wiki
But trees are a renewable resource, which means that once one is cut down another can be planted in its place. In fact, much of the wood used by paper companies in the U. Around the world, tree farms supply 16 percent of all wood used in the paper industry, while the bulk comes from second growth forests. Less than 9 percent of the wood used to make paper is harvested from old growth forests, which are impossible to replace because of their maturity. Plus, according to a report from the U. Forest Service , the rate of harvest for softwood trees in the southern United States outpaced growth for the first time since More than half of all paper produced in the US is kept out of landfills by recycling it.
Here waste paper has been sorted and prepared for recycling. For these reasons, there is a growing chorus of entrepreneurs, environmentalists and inventors who are coming up with ways to make paper without having to use as many chemicals or so many trees. Recycling is by far the most common way to help save a tree.
According to the Worldwatch Institute, recycling efforts around the world recovered about million tons, or 43 percent, of all paper used. About 60 percent of all paper in the United States was kept out of landfills in and in , 77 percent of all papermakers in the U. And mills use only recycled waste as their primary source of raw material. Others point to agricultural waste as a stand in for wood. Combined with recycled paper and other fillers, some paper makers are finding that agri-pulp paper makes fine stationery.
Bee working on female flowers of Anka industrial hemp a monoecious variety. You can see both male and female flowers. Courtesy: Ontario Hemp Alliance. Hemp is now used to make rope and clothes as well as paper. Unfortunately, it is illegal to grow hemp in the U. For that reason, hemp must be imported for use in the U. Kenaf is also known as an excellent tree-substitute in making paper.
This 4,year-old hibiscus plant — an annual, non-wood fiber plant related to okra and cotton — is native to central Africa and can grow up to 18 feet tall in a four -to-five month season. Like hemp, kenaf is naturally whiter than wood and can be bleached with hydrogen peroxide instead of chlorine. One of the major reasons paper mills are hesitant to convert to using kenaf or hemp to make paper is because they are not set up to process anything except trees.